Conifer trees have male and female cones. The female cones produce seeds. Conifers are gymnosperms, meaning naked seed plants. Pollen fertilizes the ovules of the female cones. The seeds have wings for aerodynamic travel and land elsewhere to avoid competition for resources.
Conifers do not have flowers. Gymnosperms are naked seeds, while flowers are angiosperms. An angiosperm is a flowering plant that has housed seeds within the seed coat. Rather than producing flowers, the cones are the fruiting body of a conifer. The reproductive process is similar [and actually less complicated compared to flowers]. Details will be covered in further paragraphs.
Within the male cone is reproductive anatomy, such as a pollen tube. Normally, the pistil of a flower would guide the pollen to the ovules in the ovary. Conifer cones do not have pistils nor other floral anatomies such as a stamen or corolla. Since the cones lack a pistil, the tubes use a vegetative nucleus sperm to guide the pollen. Once the tube and ovules meet, fertilization can begin.
Conifers have needle-shaped leaves that are sometimes referred to as scales. The leaves have vascular tissue and are usually coated in a waterproof resin. During winter, deciduous trees lose their leaves and use up stored energy in their roots. In contrast, coniferous trees continue to photosynthesize throughout the winter - actually, they do this all year round!
It is important to dig a hole in the soil at least three feet down to plant a conifer tree. An already established conifer tree's roots may grow between 30 and 75 feet into the soil. If the soil is closer to clay, sand, or loamy texture, you may want to dig an extra foot deep.