If you've become interested in pine trees, or maybe you're considering adding one to your garden, there is going to be one common question you have in mind; how long does a pine tree live? We have also had this question, and we've researched and gathered information from reputable sites to provide an answer for you.
Pine trees can live between 50 and 450 years. Their life expectancy varies depending on the type of pine they are and where they are growing: if the soil is right for them, if they're in a polluted area, etc.
- Eastern white pine: 100-200 years
- Golden pine tree: 60-90 years
- Italian pine tree: 50 -100 years
- Norfolk island pine tree: 150 years
- Lodgepole pine: up to 400 years
- Tree mugo pine tree: 50 years
- Scotch pine: 150-300 years
Below I've gathered information on the more popular types of pine trees, including their life span and the type of environment they need to thrive.
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
The Eastern White Pine is native to eastern North America, though it frequently occurs in Kentucky. This type of pine grows best in fertile, moist, slightly acidic, and well-drained soil with full sun. In the wild, the Eastern white pine can exceed 150 feet in height and can have a spread of 20 to 40 feet. It reaches maturity at around 20 years, and it's life span varies. It can live as long as 450 years but has an average life span of 200 years. In urban environments, its longevity is limited, but it can still live over 100 years.
Golden Pine (Pinus virginiana "Wate's Golden" )
The Golden Pine Tree, better knows as Wate's Golden is a variation of the Virginian pine. It's native to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains and can reach between 15 and 30 feet in height, with a spread of 20 feet. It can thrive in virtually any soil type, as long as the soil is well-draining. The Golden pine is slow-growing and can live 60 to 90 years.
Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea "Umbrella Pine")
The Italian stone pine tree can grow between 40 and 80 feet, reaches maturity after 20 to 30 years, and grows best in drier regions, like western America and the Mediterranean. It thrives in California because of its weather conditions and can grow up to 15 feet in its first five years. This pine needs well-drained soil and does well in both acidic soil and soil that is slightly alkaline.
In city areas, because of high winds, pollution, and pavement limitations to their expansive roots, the Italian stone pine can live as little as 50yrs. However, in the wild or with careful pruning and care, it can live between 50 and 150yrs.
Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla)
The Norfolk Island pine, also known as the Norfolk pine, is native to both the Norfolk Islands and Australia. In its native habitat, it can quickly grow up to 200 feet in height, and its cones have the potential to reach up to 15 pounds. When grown indoors, this pine can reach between 5 and 6 feet in height.
The Norfolk Island pine can grow outside in the US, but only in the semi-tropics of Florida, as it can only really thrive in humid environments. It can grow in clay, loam, and sand, and both acidic and alkaline soil that's well-drained, and can live up to 150 years.
If you're thinking of growing a Norfolk Island pine indoors, check out our post that offers excellent urn options to pot it in.
Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta)
The Lodgepole pine grows throughout the west to the Pacific Ocean, as north as Yukon, Canada, as south as Baja, California, and east to the Black Hills of South Dakota. It grows quickly and can grow to be as tall as 156 feet. This particular pine has a wide range of environmental tolerance, from cold, wet winters to warm, dry summers.
This pine can tolerate a variety of soils but grows best in moist soils derived from granite, shale, and coarse-grained lavas. The Lodgepole pine has a long life span and can live as long as 400 years.
Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo)
The Mugo pine is a pine that is native to southwestern, southeast, and central Europe, and it can live up to 50 years if well taken care of. They grow slowly, with less than a 12-inch height increase each year, and can reach up to 20 feet, with a spread of up to 5 feet at full maturity. The Mugo pine is drought tolerant and can grow in acidic, alkaline, loamy, moist, sandy, well-drained, and moist soils, making it one of the most versatile pine trees out there.
There are also dwarf variations of the Mugo pine, which can grow between 3 to 5 feet in height. As a dwarf variation, it may not live the same length of time as other variations, but it'll still give plenty of good years. If you're thinking of adding a dwarf Mugo pine to your home or garden, our post about corner gardens is a fantastic one to look at for inspiration.
Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
The Scotch pine has a life span of 150 to 300 years, and it is native to northern Europe and northern Asia, from Scotland to Siberia. This type of pine is commonly found in Ohio and is one of America's most popular Christmas trees.
It can grow between 25 and 50 feet in height, with a spread of 20 to 35 feet, and can thrive in both moist and dry soils. Since the pine has such a long life span, it grows pretty slowly, so patience is required.
Now that we've looked at the life expectancy of popular pine trees, here are two other common questions about pine trees.
How Do Pine Trees Compare to Other Trees in Lifespan?
Pine tree varieties tend to live more than typical trees. Most trees surprisingly don't live that long; fruit trees only live about 75 years, and most cherry blossom trees only average about 20 to 30 years, and this can be because of the environment they live in and the elements within that environment.
However, some trees have similar, or even longer, life spans than pine trees. The Live Oak tree can grow to be monstrous, and its average life expectancy is 300 years. The White Oak is even more impressive, with an average life expectancy of up to 600 years, a height of 100 feet, and a crown spread that can reach up to 80 feet!
Again, life expectancy for all these trees varies due to environmental factors, such as climate, fires, pollution, and drought.
What Does a Pine Tree Need to Survive?
There are a few things that pine trees need to survive, though these requirements are not necessary for all pines. Below is some detail about what these pines need.
As with all plants, pine trees need water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to survive, as this is what they need to perform photosynthesis. Sunlight is the most important of the three, as young trees need a lot of sunlight to grow. Young pines will not be often found deep within a forest, or in shaded areas.
As stated previously in the post, most types of pine trees require soil that is well-drained and, for the most part, dry. A few species of pine, like the Lodgepole, can grow in areas that tend to be moist, but this is not the case for the majority of the pine family. The type of soil that pine trees can grow in, like acidic, alkaline, loamy, and sandy, can vary, but for the most part, pines can thrive in any of them.
Pine trees produce male and female cones, and they usually need other trees to cross-pollinate. For this, pine trees are highly reliant on the wind to distribute their pollen. Additionally, the wind can carry pollen for miles to other places and trees that may need pollination.
As strange as it may seem, some types of pine trees are dependent on forest fires for survival! Some types of pine, like the Pitch pine and the southern Longleaf pine, develop thick bark early on in their lives. During a forest fire, these pines will survive, while other trees that are competing for vital nutrients and water will not.
Not only do some pines develop thick bark, but others have serotinous cones, which means that the cones naturally stay shut by resin until there is an environmental trigger or until enough time has passed. A fire will melt the resin and release the seeds, allowing the wind to carry them away for pollination.
Pine trees have a very long life expectancy and, being pretty versatile, can thrive in almost any soil as long as they have enough sunlight. We hope you've enjoyed this post and that you feel more informed on the topic.